Policies and Procedures

Photocopying of Copyrighted Materials for Classroom Use

Chapter:                      2
Section:                      12.01
Computer Index Code:          C2S12.01
Origination Date:             3/27/84
Inst. Council Approval Date:  11/14/84
Subject:  Chapter  2      BUSINESS--VP FOR BUSINESS
                          CLASSROOM USE
     The purpose of this policy is to outline Salt Lake Community
     College's copyright policy concerning the duplication of 
     printed materials.
     A.   Brevity
          1.   Poetry: (a) A complete poem if less than 250 words and 
               if printed on not more than two pages, or (b) from a 
               longer poem, an excerpt of not more than 250 words.
          2.   Prose:  (a) Either a complete article, story or essay 
               of less than 2,500 words, or (b) an excerpt from any 
               prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10% of the 
               work, whichever is less, but in any event a minimum 
               of 500 words.  (Each of the numerical limits stated 
               in 1. and 2. above may be expanded to permit the 
               completion of an unfinished line of a poem or a poem 
               or an unfinished prose paragraph.)
          3.   Illustration:  One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, 
               cartoon or picture per book or per periodical issue.
          4.   "Special" works:  Certain works in poetry, prose or 
               in "poetic prose" which often combine language with
               illustrations and which are intended sometimes for 
               children and at other times for a more general audience 
               fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety.  
               Paragraph 2. above notwithstanding such "special works"
               may not be reproduced in their entirety; however, an 
               excerpt comprising not more than two of the published 
               pages of such special work and containing not more 
               than 10% of the words found in the text thereof, 
               may be reproduced.
     B.   Spontaneity
          1.   The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the
               individual, and 
          2.   The inspiration and decision to use the work and the
               moment of its use for maximum effectiveness are so 
               close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect 
               a timely reply to a request for permission.
     C.   Cumulative Effect
          1.   The copying of the material is for only one course 
               or meeting for which the copies are made.
          2.   Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay 
               or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, 
               nor more than three from the same collective work 
               or periodical volume during one class term.
          3.   There shall not be more than nine instances of such
               multiple copying for one class term or meeting.  
               (The limitations stated in 2. and 3. above shall 
               not apply to current news periodicals and newspapers 
               and current news sections of other periodicals.)
     A.   The principles of the copyright law are designed to promote
          the creation, publication, and use of works of the 
          intellect.  These principles include both the exclusive 
          rights of copyright owners to determine certain uses of 
          their works (in not-for-profit as well as commercial 
          contexts), and certain exceptions including the doctrine 
          of "fair use."  These precepts are in the mutual interest 
          of the college, author, and publisher communities and of 
          the public.
     B.   Under the copyright laws, certain photocopying of copyrighted
          works for educational purposes may take place without the
          permission of the copyright owner under the doctrine of "fair
          use" (presently set forth in Section 107 of the Copyright Act). 
          This principle is subject to limitations, but neither the
          statute nor judicial decisions give specific practical 
          guidance on what photocopying falls within fair use.  To 
          achieve greater certainty of procedure, to reduce risks of 
          infringement or allegations thereof, and to maintain a desirable 
          flexibility to accommodate specific needs:
          1.   The procedures set forth are to be used to determine
               whether or not the prior permission of the copyright 
               owner is to be sought for photocopying for use.  (To 
               minimize intrusiveness and over-centralization, the 
               responsibility for making this determination will 
               continue to reside with the individual.  In making 
               this determination, the individual should carefully 
               consider all sections of the procedures; that is to 
               say that once work has been submitted to the copy center, 
               the position of the copy center is that they assume there 
               is no conflict with copyright and that appropriate action 
               has already been taken by the requester for service to 
               assure that this policy has been followed. If the proposed 
               photocopying is not permitted under the procedure, 
               permission to copy is to be sought.  An explanation of 
               how permissions may be sought and a procedure for furnishing 
               to the immediate supervisor information concerning the
               responses by copyright owners to requests for permission 
               is set forth under E. and F. of the procedures.  After 
               permission has been sought, copying should be undertaken 
               only if permission has been granted, and in accordance 
               with the terms of the permission, except as provided in 
               the next paragraph.
          2.   The doctrine of fair use may now or hereafter permit
               specific photocopying in certain situations, within
               limitations, beyond those specified in the procedures or
               those that might be agreed to by the copyright owner.  
               If you have any questions, consult the copy center 
               manager or librarian of the college.  If upon review 
               it is determined that some or all of the proposed 
               photocopying is permitted by the copyright law, the 
               individual will be so advised in writing.  In that 
               event, should any such photocopying by the individual 
               thereafter give rise to a claim of copyright 
               infringement, the College will defend and indemnify
               the individual against any such claim.
          3.   In the absence of the determination and advice by the
               College administration referred to in paragraph B, or 
               in the event that permission has not been first 
               requested by the individual as provided in paragraph A, 
               no defense or indemnification by the College shall be 
               provided to an individual whose photocopying gives 
               rise to a claim of copyright infringement.
     A.   Single Copying
          A single copy may be made of any of the following by or 
          for an individual at his or her individual request for 
          his or her scholarly research of use in teaching, 
          preparation to teach a class or other responsibilities:
          1.   A chapter from a book;
          2.   An article from a periodical or newspaper;
          3.   A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or 
               not from a collective work;
          4.   A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture 
               from a book, periodical or newspaper.
     B.   Multiple Copies
          Multiple copies (e.g. not to exceed in any event more than 
          one copy per individual in a course or meeting, may be made 
          by or for the individual giving the course or meeting for 
          use of discussion, provided that:
          1.   The copying meets the test of brevity and spontaneity 
               as defined below; and,
          2.   Meets the cumulative effect test as defined below; and,
          3.   Each copy includes a notice of copyright.
     C.   Compliance Form
          The individual requesting photocopying should fill out and 
          sign a one line form provided by the copy center simply asking 
          the question, "Are you in compliance with the copyright law?
          Yes ____       No____?"
     D.   Prohibitions as to A and B above
          Notwithstanding any of the above, the following shall be
          1.   Copying shall not be used to create or to replace or
               substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective
               works.  Such replacement or substitution may occur 
               whether copies of various works or excerpts therefrom 
               are accumulated or reproduced and used separately.
          2.   There shall be no copying of or from works intended 
               to be "consumable" in the course of study or of teaching 
               unless permission is indicated in the document or is 
               obtained under the guidelines of this policy.  These 
               include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and 
               test booklets and answer sheets and like consumable 
          3.   Copying shall not:
               a.   substitute for the purchase of books, publisher's
                    reprints or periodicals.
               b.   be directed by a supervisor,
               c.   be repeated with respect to the same item by the 
                    same teacher from term to term.
          4.   No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual
               cost of the photocopying (may include binding, covers,
               other handling and/or photocopying fees).
     E.   How to Obtain Permission
          When a proposed use of photocopied material requires an
          individual to request permission, communication of complete 
          and accurate information to the copyright owner will facilitate 
          the request.  The Association of American Publishers suggests 
          that the following information be included to expedite the 
          1.   Title, author and/or editor, and edition of materials 
               to be duplicated;
          2.   Exact material to be used giving amount, page numbers,
               chapters and, if possible, a photocopy of the material;
          3.   Number of copies to be made;
          4.   Use to be made of duplicated materials;
          5.   Form of distribution (classroom, newsletter, meeting, 
          6.   Whether or not the material is to be sold; and
          7.   Type of reprint (ditto, photocopy, offset, typeset).
          The request should be sent,* together with a self-addressed
          return envelope, to the permissions department of the 
          publisher in question.  If the address of the publisher 
          does not appear at the front of the material, it may be 
          obtained from The Literary Marketplace (for books) or 
          Ulrich's International Periodicals (for journals), both 
          published by the R. R. Bowker Company.  For purposes of 
          proof, and to define the scope of the permission, it is 
          important that the permission be in writing. 
          The process of considering permission requests requires 
          time for the publisher to check the status and ownership 
          of rights and related matters, and to evaluate the request.  
          It is advisable, therefore, to allow sufficient lead time.  
          In some instances the publisher may assess a fee for 
          permission, which may be passed on through the bookstore 
          to students who receive copies of the photocopied material.
     F.   Gathering Data On Responses To Requests For Permission To
          In order to help assess the effect of this Policy Statement
          upon college personnel, it will be useful for the 
          administration to compile data on responses by copyright 
          owners.  Each individual is therefore requested to forward 
          a dated copy of each request for permission and a dated copy 
          of each response to the Office of Legal counsel, Bobst 
          Library, 11th Floor, 70 Washington Square South, New York, 
          New York 10012.
          *The following is a sample letter to a copyright owner (usually a
           publisher) requesting permission to copy:
          Material Permissions Department
          Hypothetical Book Company
          500 East Avenue
          Chicago, IL 60601
          Dear Sir/Madam:
          I would like permission to copy the following for use in 
          my class next semester:
          Title:  Knowledge is Good, Second Edition
          Copyright:  Hypothetical Books Co., 1965, 1971
          Author:  Frances Jones
          Material to be duplicated:  Chapter 10 (photocopy enclosed)
          Numbers of copies:  50
          Distribution:  The material will be distributed to students 
          in my class and they will pay only the cost of photocopying.
          Type of Reprint:  Photocopy
          Use:  The chapter will be used as supplementary teaching 
          I have enclosed a self-addressed envelope for your convenience 
          in replying to this request.
          Faculty Member
For More Information, Contact: 
Nancy Sanchez 
Director of Risk Management
(801) 957-4041
E-mail:  nancy.sanchez@slcc.edu 
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